Water access and consumption in Africa
Africa has significant water resources and reserves with ± 600 M KM3, and renewable water resources of ± 20,000 KM3 annually.
A paradox because Africa after Australia is the second driest continent.
Water, this irreplaceable "matter", where Central Africa concentrates 40% of the rainfall, not to mention the rivers (the continent has 17 major rivers) and the lakes (more than 100 lakes) would suggest that Africa is sufficiently provided with water, while 80% of the population do not have access to it.
An uneven distribution and disparity depending on the country and region, the DRC alone holds almost 30% of the water on the continent for ± 10% of the population, the north and Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa are below the vital resource threshold.
Use and consumption
Some populations have very low water needs, due to their ancestral habits, they take vital water without waste.
Rural populations use water for domestic tasks (cooking, drinking, hygiene, watering, etc.), thus the water supply is achieved by collecting water from different places and supports (roof of the house), streams, sumps etc, these uses require quality water.
In some regions, wells in the villages have been installed with human-powered pumps that can draw water between 60 and 130 M (Pump Vergnet), but what about sanitation, which is often difficult to set up in rural areas.
Overall access to water is difficult, people travel several kilometers and it is very often women and children who manage the supply, the growing demography in large African cities (40% of the population) generates constant needs for water. water supply and sanitation infrastructure.
Access to water
One of the first problems of access to water is the lack of a distribution network and sanitation structure, a health issue for access to pure and drinking water.
The sanitation structures cover ± 35% of the needs, a continent-wide straw, or the needs can be very different from one country and region.
Multinationals set up Greenfield sites (EPUREAU Côte d'Ivoire) in the form of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), in developing countries, allowing the development and construction of infrastructure in the water sector, jobs in the key and a transfer of know-how.
The rehabilitation of existing infrastructure and development, particularly in urban areas, have seen requests for funding increase, at government level or through partners such as AFD, in order to be able to meet the needs of the population.
Where are we with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for water supply and sanitation, which aimed to halve inequalities in access to water in 2015, an inventory is needed to take stock of it and the work that remains to be done.